Duba bambanci da ke tsakanin Taliban, Islamic State da al-Qaeda


Kungiyoyin uku na da akidoji iri daya, amma kuma manufofi da hanyoyinsu sun sha banban. Ga dalilan da suka sa haka.

Mayaka masu ikirarin jihadi a fadin duniya sun nuna jin dadinsu game da komawar kungiyar Taliban kan karagar mulki a kasar Afghanistan.

A kasar Yemen da sauran kasashen ana gudanar da wasan tartsatsin wuta, a kasar Somalia kuma sun yi ta rarraba alawoyi, kana a shafin intanet a fadin Kudancin Asiya kungiyoyin masu ikirarinjihadi na jinjina wa janyewar kasashen Yammacin duniya daga kasar a matsayin samun galabar jajircewa kan adawa da zaman sojojin kasashen Yamma.

Yanzu haka kwararru na fargabar yiwuwar sabon lokaci na ayyukan jihadi a yankunan Gabas Ta Tsakiya da Tsakiyar Asiya.

Babbar barazana na zuwa daga kungiyoyi masu alaka da kungiyar al-Qaeda da kuma kungiyar da ke kiran kanta Daular Musulunci (IS) - wacce ta yi sanyi a shekarun baya amma ta ci gaba da gudanar da ayyukanta.

A wani bangare na yarjejeniya da Amurka, kungiyar Taliban ta yi alkawarin ba za ta bai wa kungiyoyin masu tsattsauran ra'ayi wurin zaman da za su rika kai hare-hare kan kasashen Yamma ba.

Amma kuma alakar ta da kungiyar na cigaba da kasancewa a rufe.

Game da zuwan kungiyar IS, abokiyar gabar kungiyar al-Qaeda kuwa, wasu kwararru sun yi amanna kungiyar za ta fuskanci matsin lamba da za ta sa ta nuna karfinta.

Kungiyar Islamic State Khorasan Province (IS-K ko ISKP), bangaren kungiyar IS ba ta bata wani lokaci ba inda ta kau hari a wajen filin saukar jiragen sama na birnin Kabul a ranar 26 ga watan Agusta, wanda ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar mutanen ya yawan su ya kai 170, da suka hada da jami'an gwamnatin Amurka 13.

Amma idan aka cire batun akidar masu tsattsauran ra'ayin, mene ne ya banbanta wadannan kungiyoyi uku?

Colin Clarke, wani mai bincike kuma mai sharhi kan al'amuran tsaro a Cibiyar Soufan da ke birnin New York, ya yi fashin baki:

"Kungiyar Taliban ita ce ta fi karfi a Afghanistan. Ita kuma kungiyar al-Qaeda kungiyar masu jihadi ce a kasashen daban-daban, wacce ke kokarin fadada ayyukanta.

Haka ma kungiyar IS, amma kuma za ta kasance mai yaki daga kan duwatsu ne, ganin cewa abokiyar gabar duka kungiyoyin al-Qaeda da Taliban ce," ya shaida wa BBC.

Asalinsu

Kungiyoyin Al-Qaeda da Taliban sun bullo ne a lolacin nuna jajircewa da adawa kan mamayar Tarayyar Soviet a cikin karshen shekarar 1980 da kuma faman da matsalolin cikin gida da kasar Afghanistan ke yi a farkon shekarar 1990.

Kungiyar IS ta bulla ne bayan wasu shekaru, daga ragowar 'yan kungiyar al-Qaeda a kasar Iraq (AQI), wacce aka kafa a matsayin wani martani kan mamayar Amurka a kasar ta Iraqi a shekarar 2003.

Karfin kungiyar ya dusashe har na tsawon shekaru bayan karuwar mamayar dakarun Amurka a kasar Iraqi a shekarar 2007.

Amma kuma ta sake farfadowa a shekarar 2011.

Al-Qaeda ta samo asali ne daga attajirin kasar Saudia Osama Bin Laden wanda ya kafa ta a cikin karshen shekarar 1980.

Da harshen Turanci tana nufin ''sansani'' ko kuma '' fadada'' kana ta kasance a matsayin mai bayar da taimakon makamai da sauran kayan yaki ga Musulmai da ke yakar Tarayyar Soviet.

Bin Laden ya dauki daidaikun mutane daga ko ina a fadin kasashen Musulmai don shiga kungiyar ta al-Qaeda.

Osama Bin Laden ya kare jihadin da ya ce yana yi kan Amurka a wani bidiyo da aka yada a tashar CNN a shekarar 1998, shekara uku kafin harin 9/11

Taliban, ko kuma "dalibai" a harshen Pashto, ta bulla a cikin farkon shekarar 1990 a arewacin kasar Pakistan bayan janyewar dakarun Soviet daga Afghanistan.

An yi amanna kungiyar kabilun Pashtun mafi rinjaye ce ta fara bayyana a cikin tarukan wa'azin addini - akasari ana biyansu kudi daga kasar Saudi Arabia - da ke yada tsattsauran ra'ayin Musulunci a bisa tafarkin akidar Sunna.

Alkawarin da kungiyar Taliban ta yi - a yankunan kabilun Pashtun da ke tsakiyar kasashen Pakistan da Afghanistan - shi ne na sake dawo da zaman lafiya da tsaro tare da kafa nasu tsarin mulkin na shari'ar Musulunci da zarar sun karbi mulki.

Daga kudu maso yammacin Afghanistan, Taliban ta yi sauri ta kara fadada tasirinta. A shekarar 1996 ne suka kwace birnin Kabul, bayan hambarar da gwamnatin Shugaba Burhanuddin Rabbani.

Daga shekarar 1998, kungiyar Taliban ta rike ikon kusan kasha 90 bisa dari na kasar ta Afghanistan.

A daidai wannan lokacin, kungiyar al-Qaeda ta wuce matsayin mai bayar da tallafi kawai. Ta juye ta koma kungiyar masu jihadi mai burin fadada a kasashen duniya.

Kana gwamnatin Taliban, saboda yabawa da kuma tallafin da suka yi musu, sun yi maraba da su a kasar ta Afghanistan.

Amma kuma, kungiyar AQI wacce ta kasance kan gaba-gaba a nuna turjiya ga katsalandan na kasashen waje kan kasar Iraqi, ita ma tana da buri da kuma tunani da ya sha banban da irin na manufofin kungiyar al-Qaeda na asali.

A shekarar 2006, ta shigar da sauran kungiyoyin masu tsattsauran ra'ayi kana ta fara amfani da sunan Kungiyar Kasar Musulunci ta kasar Iraqi.

Bayan shekarar 2011, a yayin da ta kara karfi a kasar Syria da yaki ya daidaita, kungiyar IS ta sauya wa kan ta suna zuwa Kungiyar Kasar Musulunci ta Iraqi da Lavent, ta ayyana kanta a matsayin Daular khalifanci tare da nisanta kan ta daga kungiyar al-Qaeda nan take.

Fassarar Musulunci

Wata dabi'a iri daya da kungiyoyin Taliban, da al-Qaeda da kuma IS ke da ita a tsattsaurar akidarsu ita ce bin tsarin Sunna a Musulunci.

Michele Groppi, wani malamai a Kings College a birnin London ya ce: "Duka kungiyoyi uku sun amince cewa ba za a taba raba harkokin siyasa da zamantakewa daga rayuwar addini ba.''

"Sun yi amanna cewa tashin hankali da sunan addini ya halarta. Shi ma waiki ne: duk wanda bai yi fada a kai b aba Musulmin kwarai ba ne,'' ya shaida wa BBC .

Groppi ya ce wannan tunani ya samo asali ne daga fassarar da suka yi wa wasu bangarori na ayoyin littafin al-Qur'ani mai girma da aka rubuta su a wata siga da ke nuna barazana.

"Kamar littafin Bible, shi ma al-Qur'ani na da na shi zafafan ayoyin, ayoyi masu karfi. Amma akasarin Musulmai, sun yi watsi da wadannan akidu masu zafi.

Sun bayyana cewa suna da tasiri ne a farkon shigowar addinin, lokacin da yake fuskantar barazana. Jihadi, yaki mai daraja, a lokacin yana da tasiri.''

Buri

A yayin da muradan kungiyar Taliban a kan kasar Afghanistan ne, kungiyoyin al-Qaeda da na IS na da na su burin ne kan kasashen duniya.

A shekarar 1990 ne kungiyar ta aiwatar da dokar Shari'ar Musulunci, ta kuma hada da tsauraran dokoki kan mata da hukunci mai tsanani, da suka kunshi aiwatar da hukuncin kisa a bainar jama'a, da bulala da kuma yanke gabobi.

Fargabar cewa tarihi zai iya maimaita kansa ya saka 'yan kasar ta Afghanistan kokarin tserewa daga kasar bayan da kungiyar ta karbe mulki.

Daniel Byman, wani kwararre a kan al'amuran da suka shafi ta'addanci da yankin Gabas Ta Tsakiya a Jami'ar Georgetown da ke birnin Washington, ya ce koyarwar kungiyoyin Al Qaeda da na IS sun fi zama mafiya tsauri.

Ya shaida wa BBC cewa yayin da Taliban "burin ta shi ne ta sake mayar da kasar Afghanistan kan tsarin tsauraran dokokin addinin Musulunci,'' ba ta bukatar sauya sauran kasashe.

The Taliban emerged from civil war and the resistance against Soviet troops in the late 1970s and 1980s

Byman ya ce duka kungiyoyin al-Qaeda da na IS na da buri kan kasashen duniya, suna da burin kafa daular Khalifanci, sun banbanta a fannin manyan batutuwa.

"Yayin da kungiyar IS ke cike da burin kafa mulkin khalifanci yanzu, kungiyar al-Qaeda na ganin ya yi wuri sosai.

"Sun yi amanna cewa al'ummar masu jihadi da kasashen Musulmai ba su shirya ba. Ba shi ne ya fi muhimmanci a gare su ba.''

Abokan gaba

Kungiyoyin Taliban da al-Qaeda da kuma IS abokan gabar nesa da na kusa ne.

Amurka da Kasashen Yamma na cikin na farko; a cikin na karsen akwai aminansu da kasashen da suka rungumi akidar raba al'amuran kasa da kuma addini.

"Daga farko, kungiyar IS ta fi zafafa tashin hankali fiye da From the beginning, IS al-Qaeda - kana ta bangaren yaki da kasashen Yamma - da fafutikar yaki da sauran Musulman da suka ki bin akidarsu,'' Byman ya ce.

Tsohon shugaban Amurka George W. Bush ya yi alkawarin yakar ta'addanci da kuma mamayar Afghanistan a 2001

Don haka wani muhimmin bambanci shi ne, yayin da Amurka ke cigaba da kasancewa babbar abokiyar gabar kungiyar al-Qaeda, kungiyar IS na cigaba da kai hari a kan kasashe 'yan Shi'a da sauran kananan addinai a yankin Gabas ta Tsakiya.

"Duk da cewa kungiyar al-Qaeda ita ma ta dauki 'yan Shi'a a matsayin masu aikata sabo, ta yi amanna kashe su ya yi tsauri, barnar kayan aiki da bata lokaci ne a kan ainini ayyukan jihadi,'' in ji Byman.

Dawowar kungiyar Taliban kan mulki ya kara haifar da rarrabuwar kawuna, bayan da kungiyar IS ke daukar kungiyar a matsayin ''mai cin amana'' kan tattaunawa game da shirin janyewar Amurka, Groppi ya bayyana.

Amma kuma, suna da babbar alaka da kungiyar Taliban ta hanyar kungiya ta uku.

Kwararru sun ce suna da karfin dangantaka tsakanin bangaren kungiyar IS a Afghanistan da kuma Haqqani, wata kungiyar masu rike da makamai da ta ke da kusanci da kungiyar Taliban.

Hanyoyin kai hare-hare

An fi sanin Al-Qaeda kan hare-haren ta kan tagwayen doyagen gine-ginen nan na birnin New York a ranar 11 ga watan Satumbar shekarar 2001, wanda aka fi sani da hare-haren 9/11.

Da wannan gagarumar hanyar kai hare-hare, kungiyar ta kara kokarin karfafa wa sauran mayaka Musulmai a ko ina da su fatattaki Amurka daga yankin Gabas ta Tsakiya musamman kasar Saudiyya da wurare masu tsarki.

Al-Qaeda ce ta kai hare-hare biranen New York da Washington DC ranar 11 ga Satumban 2001, da suka yi sanadin mutuwar dubban mutane.

Farfagandarta ta ginu a kan cewa jihadi ya wajabta a kan kowane Musulmi - amma manufofin kungiyar ta al-Qaeda sun fi yin tasiri a kan na kananan yankuna.

Byman ya ce kungiyar IS ita ma ta yi irin wannan ikirari ''amma kuma ta hanyayoyi masu na tayar da zaune tsaye.''

"A bangaren kungiyar IS, ta'addanci wani bangare ne na yakin neman kawo sauyi. A yankunan da ke karkashin ikon su, suna aiwatar da hukuncin kisa mai yawa, da datse kawuna a da fyade a bainar jama'a.

Su kan yi wa al'ummomin yankin barazanar su mika wuya. Al-Qaeda, idan zan yi amfani da sunan, na da hanyoyi mafiya sassauci.''

A tsakanin shekarar 2014 da 2017 IS ta kara fadada a yankunan kasashen Syria da Iraqi, duk da cewa tuni ta sha kaye a hannun kasashen Yamma da dakarun Kurdawa da kuma dakarun Syria da ke samun goyon bayan kasar Russia.

Kungiyar IS-K, reshen kungiyar IS na kasar Afghanistan, ta kaddamar da hari a wajen filin saukar jiragen saman a birnin Kabul ranar 26 ga watan Agusta, da ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar mutane 170.

Kungiyar ta kuma kai har ikan kungiyoyi tsiraru a kasar.

Harin 26 ga Agusta da aka kai filin jirgin sama na Kabul ya yi sanadin rayuka 170 kuma kungiyar IS-K ce ta dauki nauyi

Amma ita kungiyar Taliban, ta yi amfani da dabarun yaki inda ta kai hare-hare kan gwamnatin he Afghanistan da dakarun tsaro a cikin makonnin da suka gabata don kwace manyan birane da kuma babban birnin Kabul.

Akwai shaidu da dama da suka zargi mayakan Taliban a wadannan wurare na aiwatar da hukuncin kisa a kan sojojin Afghanistan tare da aiwatar da hukunci mai tsanani da kafa tsauraran dokoki musamman a kan mata.

Amma kuma, Groppi yq ce kungiyar ta kuma kara karfi ne ta hanyar jan hankulan mazauna yankuna da dama ''musamman na karkara'', cewa su ne za su kawo karshen duka matsalolin da kasar ta fada, musamman cin hanci da rashawa.''

Shigar da mutane cikin kungiya

Kungiyoyin Taliban, da al-Qaeda da kuma Islamic State (IS) duka sun yi dauki mutane daga irin wadannan yankuna shiga yaki kan irin wadannan akidu nasu.

Sun yi hakan ne ta hanyar yi musu alkawarin cewa yin jihadi zai cece su da kuma ''tsarkake'' addininsu.

Cike da buri a kan kasashen duniya, kungiyoyin al-Qaeda da na IS sun kuma dauki mutane daga wasu kasashen da ke wajen yankin Gabas ta Tsakiya.

"IS ta kasance mafi samun galaba a wannan bangare,'' in ji Groppi, tare da yin amfani da karfin intanet wajen jan hankalin mutane kan yankunansu a kasashen Iraqi da Syria.

Byman ya amince cewa: "Kokarin kungiyar IS a shafukan sada zumunta sun yi amfani matuka, kana sun fi hada kan daidaikun mutane a kasashen Yamma wadanda duk da cewa ba sa aiki tare da kungiyar kuma suna iya zuwa kasashen Syria da Iraqi, su tsara kai hare-hare a cikin kasashensu.''

A cikin su akwai manyan hare-hare a birnin Paris cikin shekarar 2015, wanda mayakan IS, wasun su da ke yankuna masu fama da yaki suka hallaka akalla mutane 130 kuma shi ne hari cikin ruwan sanyi mafi muni da aka taba kai wa a kasar Faransa a cikin shekaru da dama.

Rahotun BBC Hausa

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