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KIMIYYAR SADARWA



A kasidar baya mai karatu ya ji bayanai kan asali da samuwar kalmar rediyo da yadda aka yi har a karshe kalmar ta zama karbabbiya a duniya a matsayin fasahar sadarwa wajen watsa labarai ta hanyar sauti.  Amma kamar yadda na sanar har wa yau, wannan fasaha na samuwa ne ta hadakar wasu kayayyaki da na’urorin sadarwa, wadanda suke daukar asalin hasken da ke dauke da sakon sautin da masu gabatar da shirye-shirye ke harbawa sararin samaniya.  Wannan mako, cikin yardar Allah, za mu dubi tarihin samuwar sinadarin hasken da shi ne ya zama sanadiyyar samuwar fasahar rediyo a duniyar jiya da yau. Wadannan bayanai za su zo ne a tarihance.
A 1864 James Clerk Madwell, wani masani daga cikin masana harkar kimiyyar sadarwa da lissafi ya gudanar da wani bincike don kokarin gano maganadisun hasken lantarki da zai iya taimakawa wajen aiwatar da sadarwa ta murya.  Sakamakon bincikensa ya tabbatar da samuwar tartsatsin haske da ya kira: “Action at a distance.”  Ana daukar wannan al’amari a matsayin tubali da ya assasa wannan fanni.  Wannan bincike na Madwell ya dada tabbatar da sakamakon binciken wadansu masana ne da suka gabace shi.
Wadannan masana sun hada da: Luigi Galbani, wanda ya gudanar da nasa binciken a 1791 da Peter Samuel Munk, wanda ya gudanar da nasa binciken a  1835.  Sai kuma Joseph Henry, wanda ya yi bincikensa a 1842.  Da Samuel Alfred barley da bincikensa ya gudana a 1852.  A nasu bangaren, masana Edwin Houston da Elihu Thompson da kuma Thomas Edison, sun gudanar da nasu binciken ne a 1975, bayan binciken Madwell ke nan.  Sai kuma Dabid Edwards da ya gudanar da nasa bincike a 1978.
A nasa bangare, Edison ya kira wannan tartsatsin haske ne da suna: “Etheric Force.”  Shi kuma Hughes ya gano tartsatsin hasken ne iya nisan mita 460, ta amfani da wata na’urar karbar siginar haske da aka kera a wancan lokacin.  Sai dai, har zuwa lokacin da ya gama gudanar da bincikensa, bai iya tabbatar da dalilin samuwar hasken ba a inda ya gano shi ta amfani da wancan na’ura.
A  1886, wato bayan sakamakon binciken Madwell ke nan, sai Heinrich Hertz ya kara bincike, inda ya gano tare da tabbatar da samuwar wannan sinadari na maganadisun lantarkin haske.  Sakamakon abin da ya gano cikin bincikensa shi ake kira: “The Hertzian Wabes” a ilimin fasahar sadarwa ta rediyo a yau.  Wannan ne ya dada haddasa sha’awar bincike don dabbaka wannan sakamakon bincike na Heinrich Hertz.
Masanin kimiyya Oliber Lodge, a watan Agustan 1894 ya gabatar da lacca ta musamman kan wannan maudu’i, inda a filin laccar ya gudanar da wani gwaji na kimiyya don tabbatar da abin da yake magana a kai.  Nan take ya tabbatar da samuwar hakan a iya tazarar mita 50.  Oliber Lodge masanin fannin fiziya ne, dan kasar Ingila.  A nasa bangare cikin shekarar 1895, Jagadesh Bose, wanda masanin fannin fiziya ne da lissafi, ya gudanar da bincike kan yiwuwar aiwatar da sadarwa na sauti ta amfani da sinadarin haske nau’in “Microwabe.”  Wannan fanni shi ake kira: “Microwabe Optics,”  kuma Jagadesh kwararre ne a wannan fanni.  Asalinsa dan kasar Indiya ne.
A cikin wannan shekara ta 1895 dai har wa yau, Aledander Stepanobich Popob, wanda masanin kimiyya ne dan kasar Rasha, ya yi amfani da wata na’ura ta musamman shi ma, wajen gano da tababtar da wancan haske na maganadisun lantarki don sadarwa.  Wato nau’in hasken da Heinrich Hertz ya gano ke nan, wanda ake kira “The Hertzian Wabes.”  A yayin da suke ta wannan hankoro don tabbatar da samuwar hasken da ke dauke da sauti don aiwatar da sadarwa, kuma Guglielmo Marconi tuni ya fara bincike don samar da na’urar sadarwa ta Telegraph (tangaraho)  mai amfani da tsarin sadarwa ta wayar-iska, wato: “Wireless Telegraph” ke nan.  Shi ma, kamar sauran, ya aza ginshikin bincikensa a kan sakamakon binciken Heireich Hertz ne.  Bayan ya samar fasahar da ta kai ga samuwar na’urar Telegraph, a1895 hukumar gwamnatin Amurka ta yi masa rajistar hakkin mallakar wannan fasaha.  Daga nan ya ci gaba da habaka wannan fasaha a rubuce, har a karshe aka samu kamfanonin da suka dabbaka binciken a aikace, don samar da wannan na’urar sadarwa ta “Telegraph.”
Fasahar yada sauti ta amfani da fasahar rediyo ta farko da aka yi yunkurin samarwa ita ce fasahar “Amplitute Modulation,” wato tsarin “AM” ke nan, ko zangon “A.M.”  Wannan ya faru ne tsakanin 1900 da 1906.  Duk da cewa wannan yunkuri bai ci nasara ba, amma an samu turba, wacce daga baya ta zama asali don dorawa daga inda aka kwana.  Nufin yin hakan a lokacin shi ne don samun hanyar yada wakoki don samar da nishadi.
Wannan yunkuri ya ci gaba a daidai lokacin Yakin Duniya na daya, inda sojojin kasashen da suka dulmuya cikin wannan rikici suka rika amfani da tsarin aikawa da sakonni ta amfani da fasaha ko hanyar sautin rediyo. Galibi sojojin kasa da na ruwa ne suka ci gajiyar wannan a wancan lokaci.  Da aka shiga shekarun 1920 kuma, sai aka samu kamfanonin da suka fara amfani da wannan fasaha a fannin kasuwanci.  A wannan lokaci ne aka fara kafa tashoshin watsa wakoki don samar da nishadi ga jama’a.
Bayan Yakin Duniya na daya da duniya ta sake rikicewa lokacin Yakin Duniya na Biyu ma an sake samun ci gaba a fannin amfani da fasahar sadarwa ta rediyo.  Wannan ya taimaka wajen inganta tsarin, inda matuka jiragen saman yaki na kasashe daban-daban suka rika amfani da wannan hanya don aiwatar da sadarwa.  Da sojojin sama da na kasa da kuma na jiragen ruwan yaki, duk sun taimaka wajen hakan.  Bayan wannan yaki ne aka samu nasara wajen inganta fasahar talabijin, cikin shekarun 1940.
A fagen siyasa ma an samu dalilai da suka taimaka wajen inganta wannan fasaha.  Misali, gwamnatin Amurka ta yi amfani da hanyar rediyo wajen aika sakon Shugaba Woodrow Wilson ga kasar Jamus, lokacin Yakin Duniya na Biyu.  Haka ma kasar Jamus ta yi amfani da wannan fasaha wajen aikawa da sakonnin diflomasiyya ga ma’aikatanta da ke wasu kasashe, lokacin da ta gano cewa kasar Ingila na tatsar bayanan da take aikawa ta wayoyin kebul da ta binne a karkashin teku, wadanda take amfani da su wajen aiwatar da sadarwa.  Kafin wannan lokaci, babban jirgin ruwan nan da aka kera a kasar Ingila mai suna RMS Titanic, wanda ya nutse a karkashin teku sanadiyyar hadari da ya yi a hanyarsa ta zuwa birnin New York a 1912, tarihi ya nuna cewa daga cikin kayayyakin alatu da aka tanada a wannan jirgi, kamar yadda masu karatu suka karanta a kasidarmu mai take: “Yadda Aka kera Jirgin Ruwan RMS Titanic,” akwai tsarin sadarwa ta amfani da fasahar rediyo.
Bayanai sun nuna cewa ma’aikatan jirgin gaba dayansu, suna amfani ne da wannan fasaha har zuwa lokacin da wannan hadari ya faru.  Ba wannan kadai ba, akwai cibiyar sadarwa ta rediyo ta musamman da aka tanada a jirgin, tare da mai lura da wannan cibiya. Shi ya sa ma, lokacin da jirgin ya fara samun tangarda, nan take suka yada sakonni na sauti ta wannan hanya, don sanar da matuka kananan kwale-kwale da ke harabar tekun da kuma cibiyar karbar sakonnin rediyo da ke kasar Ingila, inda suka baro ke nan, don kawo musu agaji.
A takaice dai, samuwar wadannan al’amura ne suka ingiza kere-kere masu inganci har aka samar da na’urori da kuma tsare-tsare da suka taimaka wajen ginuwar wannan fanni mai matukar tasiri a duniya. 
(Daga Baban Saddiq)

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