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TARIHIN KYAUTAR NOBEL


Tarihin kyautar Nobel a takaice

An shafe fiye da shekaru 100, ana bayar da kyautar Nobel, ga mutanen da suka yi fice, da bayar da taimako a fannonin da aka zaba.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel 21.10.1833 - 10.12.1896
Nobel dai sunan wata kyauta ce, da ake bai wa wanda ya cancanta, dan karrama wani dan asalin kasar Sweden, da ke cikin nahiyar Turai, mai suna Alfred Bernhard Nobel wanda aka haifeshi a 1833, a birnin Stockholm, da ke kasar Sweden. Domin shi ne, ya assasa wannan kyautar a shekara ta 1901, kuma ana bai wa wadanda suka cancanci karramawar ne a ranar 10, ga watan Disamba, na kowace shekara, wanda a irin wannan rana ce shi Alfred Nobel din ya rasu.
Kyautar ta rabu kashi shida ko kuma nau'i shida, dan karfafa wa masana gwiwa, musamman masu bincke a jami'o'i, a fannin kimiyya na Physics, da fannin kimiyya na Chemistry, da fannin da ake kira Physiology, wato ilimin kirar jikin dan Adam, da ilimin likita, da kuma wato ilimin nazarin zamantakewar al'umma, ko adabi, da ilimin nazarin tattalin arziki, sai kuma kyautar zaman lafiya ta duniya, a cikin nau'ikan kyautar ta Nobel.
A kan tantance wadanda za a bai wa kyautar ne, ta hanyar zama a hukumance, da wasu kwamitoci, ko kungiyoyi, wadanda ke karbar sunayen, mutanen da ake ganin, ya cancanta, ace sunci, wannan kyautar, dan yawanci a kan karbo sunayensu, da yawa ne, a tantance a cikinsu, kowanne a yi ta bi daya bayan daya, ana duba mai mutum ya yi, mai al'ummar duniya ta amfana da shi, shi ake ganin yafi kowa cancanta a wannan shekara ko waninsa.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, wanda ya fara cin kyautar Nobel a fannin kimiyyar Physics a 1901.
Kasancewar wannan kyautar, ta kai sama da shekaru 100 ana bayarwa, mutane da dama daga kowace nahiya, sun samu karbar wannan kyautar ta karramawa, wadanda suka fara cin kyautar, a ranar 10 ga watan Disamba, 1901, su ne, Wilhelm Röntgen dan kasar Jamus, a fannin kimiyyar Physics, da Jacobus Henricus Van 't Hoff, dan kasar Netherlands, a fannin kimiyyar Chemistry, da kuma Emil Adolf Von Behring, shi ma dan kasar Jamus, a fannin kimiyyar Physiology, da Sully Prudhomme, dan kasar Faransa, a fannin fasahar zamantakewar al'umma ko kuma adabi, sannan sai Henry Dunant dan kasar Switzerland, tare da Frederic Passy, dan kasar Faransa a fannin zaman lafiya.
Ko da yake mace ta farko da ta samu karbar wannan kyauta ita ce Marie Curie, 'yar asalin kasar Poland, wadda daga baya ta rikide ta koma ´yar kasar Faransa, a fannin kimiyyar Physics, a shekara ta 1903.
Marie Curie, mace ta farko da ta karbi kyautar Nobel a 1903, 'yar asalin Poland, mai takardar shaidar zama a Faransa.
Dan haka, mutanen da suka samu karbar wannan kyautar a baya, sun fi yawa daga nahiyar Turai. Amma kawo yanzu, an samu karbar kyautar a duka nahiyoyin duniya baki daya. Misali a Najeriya, Professor Wole Soyinka, ya karbi wannan kyautar a fannin adabi. Duk da dai a nahiyarmu ta Afirka muna da matsaloli da yawa, wadanda suke kawo mana nakasu a yin fice domin samun wannan karramawa.
Kyautar dai ta kunshi lambar yabo mai matukar tasiri a idanun al'ummar duniya, tare da kudade masu nauyi, yadda duk inda mutum ya shiga a fadin duniya, za a shaida shi. Wannan ne ma ya sa mutane da dama ke sha'awar samun wannan kyauta ta Nobel.
(Daga DW Hausa)


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